How Do You Make Diamonds

Diamonds are made out of carbon — highly organized carbon, that is. Geologists are still guessing how diamonds formed in the Earth from 1 billion to 3 billion years ago, according to a recent study in the journal Nature, but they think the recipe follows something like this:

1. Bury carbon dioxide 100 miles into Earth.

2. Heat to about 2,200 degrees Fahrenheit.

3. Squeeze under pressure of 725,000 pounds per square inch.

4. Quickly rush towards Earth’s surface to cool.

diamond

If the process sounds a little difficult, thank a synthetic diamond manufacturer: There are now two ways to make diamonds in the laboratory.

The first synthetic method is called high pressure, high temperature (HPHT for short). It’s the closest thing to the diamond-producing bowels of the Earth, subjecting graphite (yes, the stuff in a No. 2 pencil, which is made from pure carbon) to intense pressure and heat. Tiny anvils in an HPHT machine squeeze down on the graphite as intense electricity zaps it, producing a gem-quality diamond in just a few days. These diamonds, however, aren’t as pure as natural diamonds because a metallic solution is mixed in with the graphite.

The other diamond-producing method — called chemical vapor deposition — turns its back on intense pressure but cranks out diamonds more flawless than nature can produce. Manufacturers place a piece of diamond into a depressurizing chamber, then zap natural gas with a microwave beam. As the gas is heated to almost 2,000 degrees, carbon atoms “rain” down onto the diamond in the chamber and stick to it, growing a perfect sheet of diamond overnight.

While De Beers isn’t happy with its new competitors, computer manufacturers have something to be excited about: At temperatures that would melt silicon wafers, sheets of synthetic diamond stay rock-hard. http://www.livescience.com/32266-how-are-diamonds-made.html, By Dave Mosher

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Marbled Clay Pendant Necklace

Love this! Marbled Clay Pendent Necklace DIY (click through for tutorial)

If I had to pick one item of jewelry to wear for the rest of my life, it would be the long pendant necklace for sure. It’s an easy item to wear with both casual and dressy outfits, and I’m convinced that the longer chains elongate your body and make you look a little bit taller than short necklaces do. I’ve been a little bit obsessed with the marbling process, and I thought a pendant necklace would be another great way to show off the easy marbling technique.

Love this! Marbled Clay Pendent Necklace DIY (click through for tutorial)     Supplies:
-oven bake clay
-silicon rolling pin or glass jar to use as rolling pin
-X-Acto knife or clay knife
-parchment paper
-super glue
-necklace chain, jump rings, and necklace closure
-gold pendant bails

Love this! Marbled Clay Pendent Necklace DIY (click through for tutorial)     To make your marbled clay section for your necklace, Gold Ivy Collections using black, grey and white strands of clay. Don’t get too hung up on an exact measurement of clay for each color, but I would start with a hunk of white clay a little bigger than a golf ball, a grey ball of clay half that size, and then a small piece of black that’s half the size of the grey. Adjust those ratios if you want more or less of something on your second try.

Love this! Marbled Clay Pendent Necklace DIY (click through for tutorial)     Once you have your clay rolled out about 1/4″ thick, use an X-Acto or clay knife to cut your clay into small strips for your pendant necklace. I made the larger pendant 2″ long and the smaller size 1.25″ long. Place the pendants on parchment paper and bake in the oven according to the clay instructions.

Love this! Marbled Clay Pendent Necklace DIY (click through for tutorial)     Once the clay has baked and cooled, seal the clay with a glaze (only if you want to) and use glue to attach the pendants to the bail. I put the small bail on the back of the smaller pendant, but I really liked the larger bail on the front for the bigger size.

Cut your chain to your desired length, add the pendant, and then use jump rings to attach the chain to a necklace closure. If you want to do a double pendant, cut a shorter chain for the smaller pendant, and attach the long and short chain ends to the same jump ring. Then connect that to the necklace closure.

Love this! Marbled Clay Pendent Necklace DIY (click through for tutorial)     Love this! Marbled Clay Pendent Necklace DIY (click through for tutorial)     I really, really love how this project came out! You could make these with any colored clay you want, but I like how classic the grey and white marble looks. It’s also up to you if you want to make a double pendant version with a smaller and larger pendant or just one single pendant on a chain. These are really fast and easy to make and would be a great project for a craft night party or next time you’re in need of a homemade gift. So glad I decided to make a wearable version of the clay marbling. Hope you decide to give it a try as well!

How To Make a Beaded Necklace

How to make a simple beaded necklace Supplies needed: Beads, bead-stringing wire, wire cutters, needle-nose pliers, bead crimper, crimping beads, chain, and jewelry findings (closures and hoops to finish off your necklaces). You can get a lot more fancy in the future, but this is all you need to get started!

How to make a simple beaded necklace

First, use your bead-stringing wire to make as many strings of beads as you like. I did three, but you can start with just one for a single-strand necklace.

How to make a simple beaded necklace

Next, use the crimping beads to attach the ends of the three wires to one jump ring on each end. This is super easy—just loop the wire back through two beads (as you see above), and then use your crimping pliers to crimp the beads, flattening them until they permanently hold the two wires together. Then use wire cutters to trim off any excess wire. Repeat that with the end of every wire until all ends are attached to jump rings.

How to make a simple beaded necklace

Last, attach chains and closures to your beaded wire using needle-nose pliers. Be sure to measure and make sure your necklace is the length you prefer.

How To Straighten Jewelry Wire

Step 1: Straighten Wire

First off, you will need to strip your copper wire if it has insulation on it. A pair of steel rollers might be able to smush the insulation off if you are making a lot of stripped wire, but a pair of normal wire strippers will also work fine.

Once you have the bare copper wire, straighten it. Bent copper wire can be difficult to work with. To straighten the wire, I laid it on the floor and rolled it back and forth under a flat piece of wood. This works quite well. It does not have to be perfect, but it should be fairly straight, or else you will make crooked rings.

Crystal Healing Jewelry

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Crystal Healing Jewelry

Do you have a lucky necklace? What if you had a piece of jewelry that gave off a positive energy and had added benefits for your spirituality and physical well-being? That’s the concept behind crystal healing jewelry.

Crystal healing is based on the belief that certain stones and crystals have special powers. Although there’s not scientific proof of these claims, there is a lot of evidence in history. Maybe there’s more that meets the eye when it comes to certain gems.

Todays Crystal Healing Jewelry

Recently, crystal healing jewelry has become pretty mainstream, however it’s not anything new. Many jewelry brands such as Alex and Ani bangles play on the concept of energy. Jewelry such as this is widely available at alternative venues such as music festival vendors. Since the beginning, gemstones have been adorned and attributed with special attributes.

Crystal healing is a technique where crystals such as Quartz are rubbed on the body. You may’ve heard the term “chakras” in yoga class, this uses the concept that the matching places in the body hold energy grids.

It may be nothing more than a placebo, but crystal healing has been widely used in many cultures such as Hawaiian islanders and the Chinese. And jewelry of course has also been around for ages.

History of Crystal Healing Jewelry

Stones have almost always been worn as talismans and amulets and been associated with various values in religion and culture, mostly made of natural materials. Ivory beads from 60,000 years ago were discovered in a grave in Russia. Amber amulets were also found from as early as 30,000 years ago. Jewelry is definitely in our blood!

Ancient Egyptians used gemstones in their crystal healing jewelry for protection such as emerald and turquoise.

During the Renaissance, along with herbs, crystals were used for healing powers. It was believed that if a sinner held the gems, they would lose their worth.

Jade has been commonly seen as a healing stone. It was portrayed as a kidney healer in South America, China, Aztec and Mayan civilizations.

Stones such as rubies have religious significance as well. To Buddhists, the ruby helps the wearer’s mental and physical health.

In the early 19th century experiments on ‘clairvoyant’ individuals suggested that different physical and psychological changes occurred when certain stones came into contact with an individual.

Many Native American tribes value gemstones, especially turquoise, which is supposed to provide strength in many parts of the world.

‘Crystal’ means ice in Greek. ‘Amethyst’ means ‘not drunken’, and was used by the ancient Greeks to cure hangovers. Greek soldiers would also wear different amulets, which were said to protect them at sea.

During the New Age in the 1980s crystals were brought back as a healing method. Crystal therapy is a very modern subject, widely written about and even taught in some colleges.

Some Crystal Healing Jewelry You Can Love

One brand of crystal healing jewelry, Energy Muse, states, “Energy Muse Jewelry’s soul mission is to empower people and help them tap into their own personal magnificence. We provide empowering tools, in the form of crystals and crystal jewelry, to assist you on your spiritual journey.”

Where Does Jewelry Come From?

The word jewelry is derived from the word jewel.  Jewelry comprises ornamental objects worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. Before written language, or the spoken word, there was jewelry. Ancient cultures used easily available items found in nature to make jewelry.

The first jewelry was made from readily available natural materials including animal teeth, bone, shells, carved stone and wood. It is believed that jewelry started out as a functional item used to fasten articles of clothing together, and was later adapted for use as an object for purely aesthetic ornamentation, or for use as a spiritual and religious symbol.

Jewelry in various forms has been made and worn by both sexes in almost every culture. Diamonds were fist used by Chinese, stone age craftsmen in China were polishing objects using diamond 2,000 years before anyone else had the same idea.

In ancient Egypt, gold was favored in jewelry making, and was often used to create everything from necklaces to head ornaments. The ancient Greeks however, preferred to use beads shaped in very natural forms, such as shells, flowers. The Greeks only wore jewelry for special occasions and jewelry was predominately worn by women.  Between the years of 2600-2400 BC, Mesopotamian jewelry was constructed of thin gold and brightly colored stones such as agate and Jasper. Crafters of this time used wide varieties of metalworking techniques. Greek and Roman jewelry, of the years 121 AD-130 AD, resembled Egyptian jewelry as it borrowed heavily from deities of that earlier period. Around this time, hoop earrings and gold bracelets were developed. During the Middle ages, jewelry was being crafted by goldsmiths, glass makers and silversmiths.

In15th century, it was hard to find a woman that was not wearing a piece of jewelry. Soon jewelry became a symbol of rank, wealth, and social standing. Jewelry has been a part of our society throughout time starting from this original date in Africa to the early Egyptians, the Romans and the Greeks up to our current-day society.

In 1477 we welcomed diamond jewelry. That’s when the actual tradition of giving a diamond engagement ring as a promise of marriage is thought to have started. Throughout time jewelry has served many forms and functions.

During the Renaissance, Napoleon revived the style of jewelry.  He developed the practice of creating suites of matching jewelry sets. In the Victorian Period, stud earrings, bar pins, black jewelry, pearl and diamond jewelry were in fashion. During this time, the costume jewelry business also began to flourish. During the Georgian period of 1714-1830, diamonds were used extensively in chandelier styled earrings and necklaces 

The modern jewelry movement began in the late 1940s at the end of World War II with a renewed interest in artistic and leisurely designs.

Today jewelry is made from almost every known material and to adorn almost every body part.  Jewelry is also made and worn by some cultures for body modification.  The US is the largest jewelry market with a market share of 30.8%,  followed by Japan, India, China, Middle East and Italy.  Earrings are the most popular type of jewelry.

Where Does Gold Come From ?

Because gold is dispersed widely throughout the geologic world, its discovery occurred to many different groups in many different locales. And nearly everyone who found it was impressed with it, and so was the developing culture in which they lived.

Gold was the first metal widely known to our species. When thinking about the historical progress of technology, we consider the development of iron and copper-working as the greatest contributions to our species’ economic and cultural progress – but gold came first.

Gold is the easiest of the metals to work. It occurs in a virtually pure and workable state, whereas most other metals tend to be found in ore-bodies that pose some difficulty in smelting. Gold’s early uses were no doubt ornamental, and its brilliance and permanence (it neither corrodes nor tarnishes) linked it to deities and royalty in early civilizations .

Gold CoinsGold has always been powerful stuff. The earliest history of human interaction with gold is long lost to us, but its association with the gods, with immortality, and with wealth itself are common to many cultures throughout the world.

Early civilizations equated gold with gods and rulers, and gold was sought in their name and dedicated to their glorification. Humans almost intuitively place a high value on gold, equating it with power, beauty, and the cultural elite. And since gold is widely distributed all over the globe, we find this same thinking about gold throughout ancient and modern civilizations everywhere.

Gold, beauty, and power have always gone together. Gold in ancient times was made into shrines and idols (“the Golden Calf”), plates, cups, vases and vessels of all kinds, and of course, jewelry for personal adornment.

The “Gold of Troy” treasure hoard, excavated in Turkey and dating to the era 2450 -2600 B.C., show the range of gold-work from delicate jewelry to a gold gravy boat weighing a full troy pound. This was a time when gold was highly valued, but had not yet become money itself. Rather, it was owned by the powerful and well-connected, or made into objects of worship, or used to decorate sacred locations.

Gold has always had value to humans, even before it was money. This is demonstrated by the extraordinary efforts made to obtain it. Prospecting for gold was a worldwide effort going back thousands of years, even before the first money in the form of gold coins appeared about 700 B.C.

In the quest for gold by the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Indians, Hittites, Chinese, and others, prisoners of war were sent to work the mines, as were slaves and criminals. And this happened during a time when gold had no value as ‘money,’ but was just considered a desirable commodity in and of itself.

The ‘value’ of gold was accepted all over the world. Today, as in ancient times, the intrinsic appeal of gold itself has that universal appeal to humans. But how did gold come to be a commodity, a measurable unit of value?


Gold, measured out, became money. Gold’s beauty, scarcity, unique density (no other metal outside the platinum group is as heavy), and the ease by which it could be melted, formed, and measured made it a natural trading medium. Gold gave rise to the concept of money itself: portable, private, and permanent. Gold (and silver) in standardized coins came to replace barter arrangements, and made trade in the Classic period much easier.

Gold was money in ancient Greece. The Greeks mined for gold throughout the Mediterranean and Middle East regions by 550 B.C., and both Plato and Aristotle wrote about gold and had theories about its origins. Gold was associated with water (logical, since most of it was found in streams), and it was supposed that gold was a particularly dense combination of water and sunlight.

What Is Black Gold

The term black gold is probably best well known as a poetic description of either coal or oil deposits – finding these being considered the equivalent of “striking gold” in terms of becoming rich.

Black gold also exists as a precious metal variant and you can even buy black gold jewelry, though it can be fairly hard to come by.

How Is Black Gold Made?

Unlike many colour variations of normal gold, black gold isn’t created by an alloy process (although the gold used is normally an alloy rather than pure 24 karat). Instead the black appearance is created by a variety of methods including external coating, electroplating, heat treatment and controlled oxidation. The combination of the hue of the original metal and the method used to colour it will determine quite how deep the final black of the gold becomes.

One of the most common techniques for creating black gold is electroplating to add a layer known as a patina. Electroplating with rhodium or ruthenium is most common, often starting from 18 karat white gold.
Why take something as precious as gold and blacken it? Although black gold jewelry isn’t to everyone’s taste it is undeniably striking and unusual. Many jewelry designers and buyers like the contrast it makes with other metals and stones. Personally I think that black gold works especially well either as a setting for diamonds or as a contrasting metal to white gold or platinum.

Jennifer Hudson Wedding Ring

Jennifer Hudson is an emblem of the efficacy of dieting and exercise, but when she showed up to dedicate a Weight Watchers storefront in New York, the buzz was about what she wasn’t wearing: her engagement ring.
The singer/actress was “minus a few ounces,” cracked Yahoo about Hudson’s appearance on Monday night. “Think Hudson simply forgot to put on her bling?”
Oscar winner Hudson, 31, who’s been engaged to WWE’s David Otunga for four years and has a 3-year-old son with him, is the proud possessor of a huge Neil Lane diamond ring.
But it was nowhere in evidence when she posed and sat for interviews at the event to celebrate Weight Watchers’ 50th anniversary. The new storefront was dedicated to company founder Jean Nidetch.
Hudson was svelte in a gold skirt and fitted black top, and could not have looked healthier. She’s an ideal spokeswoman for Weight Watchers, having lost 80 pounds while on a WW diet and a good exercise regimen.
She and Otunga lately have not been seen together at publicity events such as this. She was alone at this year’s Academy Awards and Vanity Fair‘s after-party. When Otunga attended the Hollywood premiere of his movie The Call, he went with their son, David Jr.

Where Do Diamonds Come From?

  1. Earth’s

  2. Diamond-bearing rock is carried from the mantle to the Earth’s surface by deep-origin volcanic eruptions. The magma for such a volcano must originate at a depth where diamonds can be formed—150 km (93 mi) or more (three times or more the depth of source magma for most volcanoes).
  3. Experiments and the high density of diamonds tell us that they crystallize at very high pressures. In nature this means that diamonds are created by geologic processes at great depth within Earth, generally more than 150 kilometers down, in a region beneath the crust known as the mantle. Other processes, explored later in this exhibition, bring diamonds to where people can find them.
    Formation of Diamonds Earth Layers
    This diagram shows the interior structure of Earth. The three concentric layers — the core, mantle, and crust — formed within a few hundred million years of Earth’s coalescence 4.5 billion years ago. The core is primarily an iron-nickel alloy and makes up a large fraction of the mass of Earth. The vast mantle is sandwiched between the core and the thin crust and is composed predominantly of magnesium and iron silicate minerals. Our planet’s crust is a thin, rocky skin. Diamonds can form in most of Earth’s interior but not near its surface, where graphite is the stable form of carbon. Indeed, diamonds only survive at Earth’s surface because great heat is required to break down the diamond structure.
    The upper mantle is slightly plastic, which allows it to circulate slowly in a creeping, convective flow that helps drive the surface motion of Earth known as “plate tectonics.”
  4. The cross section shown here provides a closer look at Earth’s crust and underlying mantle. The crust can be divided into ocean basins, underlain by a thin layer of dense, basaltic rock, and continents, formed of a much thicker but less-dense layer of granitic rocks. Just below the crust is the portion of the mantle called the lithosphere, which is rigid and acts like rock. Below this is the asthenosphere, a more plastic, flowing region that enables the overlying crustal plates to move in what is known as plate tectonics.
  5. Earth's crust and underlying mantle
  6. The plot of pressure and temperature shows the conditions at which either diamond or graphite exist. The general conditions present in the Earth are described by curved lines called geotherms. Note that there are two geotherms: Because the continental crust is old and thick, conditions are somewhat colder in and beneath it than beneath the much younger ocean basins. Diamonds can form at depths as shallow as 150 kilometers beneath the continental crust, while beneath oceans they need depths of at least 200 kilometers, as shown by the diamond boundary on the cross-section.
  7. Diamond graph
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